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    The Caofeidian PortTangshan is an important heavy industrial city in North China. Its output include machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, glass, petroleum products, and cement. It has been a coal-mining center since late Qing Dynasty, as Guangdong merchant Tong King-sing opened the first coal mine using modern techniques in Kaiping in 1877. Since the construction of the Caofeidian Project, it has hosted large iron and steel plants, chemical projects, and electricity plants. It is China's largest steel-producing city. Tangshan is also called the "porcelain capital of North China." Modern industry in China first arose in Tangshan. The second railway in China – after the abortive Woosung Railway in Shanghai – was the six-mile track laid between Hsukochuang and Tangshan which opened in 1881; this eventually grew into the Imperial Railroad of North China and China's modern Jingshan and Jingha Railways. The first fire-resistant material manufactory and the first and largest cement manufactory were constructed in Tangshan as well.In 2008, the GDP of Tangshan was ¥356.119 billion, ranked No. 1 among all the prefecture-level cities in Hebei Province, and No. 19 in China. GDP per capita reached ¥48,190 ($6,817).Tangshan’s GDP in 2011 reached 544.2billion RMB, up 11.7% over the same period of last year. The overall fiscal revenue reached 55.5 billion RMB, among which the general budget revenue reached 25.56 billion RMB, up 26.6% and 30.5% respectively. The per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents reached 21785RMB and 9460RMB respectively, an increase of 11.4% and 13.8%, leading the first in Hebei Province.Industrial zoneCaofeidian New Zone.


    Air[edit]Tangshan Sannühe Airport, 20 kilometers from the city center, in Fengrun DistrictRail[edit]Beijing–Harbin RailwayTianjin–Shanhaiguan RailwayRoads[edit]China National Highway 102, in the south of Fengrun DistrictChina National Highway 112, ring road encircling Beijing, traversing the west side of Tangshan's urban areaChina National Highway 205, which runs along the eastern and southern front of the urban areaG1 Beijing–Harbin Expressway, on the northern side of the urban areaG25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway, on the western side of the urban area


    The prefecture-level city of Tangshan administers 14 county-level divisions including 7 districts, 5 counties and 2 county-level cities.Map12GuyeKaipingFengnanFengrunCaofeidianLuanCountyLuannanCountyLaotingCountyQianxiCountyYutianCountyZunhua(city)Qian'an(city)341. Lunan2. Lubei3. (Hangu MD)4. (Lutai EDZ)NameHanziHanyu PinyinPopulation (2010 census)Area (km²)Density (/km²)Lubei District路北区Lùběi Qū743,5041126,638Lunan District路南区Lùnán Qū311,076355876↳Hangu Management District*汉沽管理区Hàngū Guǎnlǐqū↳Lutai Economic Development Zone*芦台经济技术开发区Lútái Jīngjì Jìshù KāifāqūGuye District古冶区Gǔyě Qū358,4612531,417Kaiping District开平区Kāipíng Qū262,5712521,042Fengrun District丰润区Fēngrùn Qū916,0921,334687Fengnan District丰南区Fēngnán Qū595,4671,568380Built-up area3,187,1713,874823Caofeidian District曹妃甸区Cáofēidiān Qū184,931700264Zunhua City遵化市Zūnhuà Shì737,0111,521485Qian'an City迁安市Qiān'ān Shì728,1601,208603Luan County滦县Luán Xiàn554,315999555Luannan County滦南县Luánnán Xiàn584,5181,270460Laoting County乐亭县Làotíng Xiàn526,2221,308402Qianxi County迁西县Qiānxī Xiàn390,1281,439271Yutian County玉田县Yùtián Xiàn684,8331,165588*Hangu Management District and Lutai Economic Development Zone is subordinate to Lunan District but formally part of Binhai New Area in Tianjin.


    Early historyTangshan has a long history, with ancient humans living in the area as early as 4,000 years ago. It fell within the territory of the Guzhu Kingdom (1600 BC) at the time of the Shang Dynasty and later became a part of the State of Yan, one of the seven Warring States (403 – 221 BC). During the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) it became part of the ancient province of Youzhou. It was under the jurisdiction of Yongping Province and Zunhua State successively during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).Tang, Ming and Qing dynastiesTangshan was a village at the time of the Tang dynasty (619–907) and developed further in agriculture, oil exploitation and ceramics during in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).During the Hundred Days' Reform in the late Qing dynasty, the Kaiping Mining Administration was established in the third year of the Guangxu Emperor (1877). In 1878, Qiaotun town was established at Tangshan and renamed Tangshan Town in 1889. In 1938, Tangshan City was formally founded. The administrative system of Tangshan during the Republic of China Republican era continued to follow the Qing system. In 1929, Zhili Province changed its name to Hebei Province. On January 28, 1939, because of Tangshan's special economic and political position, the Eastern-Hebei Anti-communist Government established Tangshan City which was initially called “Tangshan Municipal Government” and later changed to “Tangshan Municipal Office”. After Japan surrendered in 1945, the Chinese Nationalist Party in Peking (now known as Beijing) took over the political control of Tangshan from Japan and set up an Administration Inspectors Office. In April 1946, it was decided at the 132nd Meeting of the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee to set up Tangshan City and on May 5 of the same year, the Tangshan Municipal government was founded.People's RepublicAfter the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, Tangshan remained a provincially administered municipality with 12 areas under its jurisdiction. In March 1955, it was decided at the 2nd session of the first People's Congress of Tangshan City to change Tangshan Municipal people's government to Tangshan people's committee without changing its administration areas.On April 28, 1958, the State Council approved the establishment of Tangshan prefecture. On August 29, 1958, it was decided at the Seventh Session of the first People's Congress of Hebei Province to move the Tangshan Commissioner Office from Changli County to Tangshan City.The CPC Central Committee decided to designate Tangshan city as one of the 45 cities open to the world on June 3, 1959. On June 8, 1959, the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee and the Hebei Provincial People's Congress decided to combine the Tangshan Commissioners Office and the Tangshan People's Committee into the Tangshan People's Committee. On April 2, 1960, the State Council officially approved the abolition of Tangshan prefecture. Qinhuangdao city, Qian'an, Changli, Laoting, Baodi, Yutian, Jixian County and Zunhua which were formerly administrated by Tangshan Prefecture were incorporated into the Tangshan Municipality. Luanxian County, Fengrun County (formerly a district) and Baigezhuang Farm were also incorporated into Tangshan Municipality. Meanwhile, Tangshan became a provincially administered municipality.On May 23, 1961, the State Council approved the reinstatement of Tangshan prefecture, which was adopted at the 14th Meeting of the Hebei Provincial People's Committee on June 3, 1959. Tangshan prefecture and Tangshan municipality were separated again and Tangshan turned into a specially administered municipality.The Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee affiliated to the Revolutionary Committee of Tangshan Region was set up on January 6, 1968, On March 11, 1978, Tangshan turned to be a provincially administered municipality.In October 1982, it was decided at the Seventh People's Congress of Tangshan city to abolish the Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee and set up the Tangshan Municipal People's Government.The State Council approved the move on March 3, 1983 and thereafter implemented the city-governing-county system. On May 13, 1983, the Hebei Provincial People's Government announced the cancellation of the Civic Administration office of Tangshan region, which ceased operation on May 15, 1983.On December 15, 1984, the State Council approved Tangshan city as one of 13 national “comparatively big” cities.1976 Tangshan earthquakeMain article: 1976 Tangshan earthquakeTangshan suffered an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 (7.5 according to official reports) at 3:42 am on July 28, 1976, which resulted in many casualties. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that the actual number of fatalities was two to three times that number, making it the most destructive earthquake in modern history. As a result of the earthquake, most of the town had to be rebuilt. The earthquake was depicted in the 2010 movie Aftershock.

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